# How Super Resolution Works

November 25, 2019

# Transcript

In many CSI movies, there's that scene where someone finds a small and obscured image, and they get a clear picture out of it by zooming and enhancing it. Is this really possible? Mostly no, those movies are nowhere near technically accurate. But, to some extent, yes. It is indeed possible to enlarge and enhance images, and that's called super-resolution. That's what we are going to be talking about in this video.

The process of upscaling and enhancing an image is called super-resolution. There are multiple ways to do it. For now, let's focus on single-frame super-resolution where we have a single low-resolution image, and we want to upscale it.

So how can we upscale an image? The simplest way to do would be to spread the pixels out and fill in the holes by copying the values from the closest pixels. That's how nearest neighbor upscaling works. But that doesn't really look like a higher-resolution image, does it? It looks more like a low-resolution image with larger pixels. You can improve it a bit by taking the weighted averages of the neighboring pixels rather than copying the closest ones. That's essentially what bilinear and bicubic upscaling algorithms do. But even that doesn't look good enough.

In information theory, there's a concept called data processing inequality. It states that whatever way you process data, you cannot add information that is not already there. This implies that missing data cannot be recovered by further processing. Does that mean super-resolution is theoretically impossible? Not if you have an additional source of information. A neural network can learn to hallucinate details based on some prior information it collects from a large set of images. The details added to an image this way would still not violate the data processing inequality. Because the information is there, somewhere in the training set, even if it's not in the input image.

So, how can we train such a model? If you watched my Deep Learning Crash Course series, you might be thinking: can't we just train a neural network to learn a mapping between low and high-resolution images?

Yes, we can, and we wouldn't be the first ones to do so. That's pretty much what the SRCNN paper did.

First, we can create a dataset by collecting high-resolution images and downscaling them, or we can simply use one of the existing super-resolution datasets, such as the DIV2K dataset. Then, we can build a convolutional neural network that would input only the low-resolution images, and we can train it to produce higher resolution images that match the original ones the best.

The SRCNN paper simply minimized the squared difference between the pixel values to produce images that are as close as possible to the original high-resolution images. But is mean squared error really the right metric to optimize?

This is a very old debate. Long story short, mean squared error doesn't express the human perception of image fidelity well. For example, all of these distorted images are equally distant from the original image in terms of mean squared error. Clearly, they don't look equally good. Because mean squared error cares only about pixel-wise intensity differences but not the structural information about the contents of an image.

There's a better measure of perceptual image quality called the structural similarity index, which was developed in my lab at the University of Texas at Austin. The structural similarity index made a very high impact, both in academia and the industry. My doctoral advisor, Alan Bovik, and his collaborators won a Primetime Emmy Award for this method a few years ago.

This metric was initially developed to measure the severity of image degradations. However, many researchers also used it as a loss function to train neural networks for image restoration.

More recently, people also started using pre-trained convolutional neural networks as perceptually-relevant loss functions. How it works is that you first take a pre-trained model. This is typically a VGG-19 model trained on ImageNet. Then take it's first few layers and compute the difference between the feature maps produced by those layers. The difference between the feature maps can be minimized to train another model, just like any other loss function. The layers that generate those feature maps stay frozen during training and act as a fixed feature extractor. This method is commonly referred to as perceptual loss, content loss, or VGG-loss.

How is this relevant to super-resolution? We can use this loss function to train models to enhance images and get pretty decent results. But, sometimes, it doesn't feel fair to penalize the model for pixelwise differences that don't really make much difference for human viewers. For example, does the direction of the hair on this baboon's face really matter? What if we cared a little less about how the original high-resolution images looked like, as long as the produced images looked good.

There's a GAN-based super-resolution system called SRGAN. It uses a generator network that inputs low-resolution images and tries to produce their high-resolution versions. It also uses a discriminator network that tries to tell whether this is a real high-resolution image or an image upscaled by the generator. Both networks are trained simultaneously, and they both get better over time. Once the training is done, all we need is the generator part to upscale low-resolution images.

In addition to this adversarial training setup, SRGAN also used a VGG-based loss function that we talked about earlier.

There's another paper called Enhanced SRGAN, which proposed a few tricks to improve the results further. Enhanced SRGAN, or ESRGAN for short, somehow got popular in the gaming community. People started using it to upscale vintage games, and it worked pretty well. It's surprising how well it worked on video game graphics despite being trained only on natural images.

Let's take a look at what enhancements the ESRGAN paper proposed for better results.

First, they removed the batch normalization layers in their network architecture. This may sound contradictory to what I said in my previous videos, but it's not. Batch normalization does help a lot for many computer vision tasks. But for image-processing related tasks, such as super-resolution or image restoration in general, batch normalization can create some artifacts.

They also added more layers and connections to their model architecture. It's not surprising that a more sophisticated model resulted in better images, but deeper models can be trickier to train, especially if they are not using batch normalization layers. So, the authors of ESRGAN used some tricks like residual scaling to stabilize the training of such a network.

In addition to the changes in the model architecture, they also modified the loss functions. For example, they modified the VGG-loss in a way that compared the feature maps before activations. Their rationale is that the feature maps are denser and contain more information before they get clipped by the activation functions.

In the original SRGAN paper, the discriminator model was trained to detect whether its input is real or fake. In the enhanced version, the authors used a relativistic discriminator that tells whether the input looks more realistic than fake data or less realistic than real data.

Earlier I said minimizing the mean squared error might not be the best way to generate textures that look appealing to the human visual system. Then, I went on to say maybe we shouldn't care too much about how close the generated images are to the original ones.

There's actually a trade-off there. We would still want the upscaled images to be a faithful representation of the originals while having good-looking textures. The ESRGAN paper aims to find the sweet spot by interpolating between models. What they do is that they compute the weighted average of two models, one trained using mean squared error, and the other fine-tuned with adversarial training. Blending the parameters this way allows for finding the right balance between the two models without retraining them. More recently, another paper also explored the idea of network interpolation, and their results also look promising.

Super-resolution is a relatively hot topic, and many researchers are experimenting with different ways of approaching this problem and are publishing their results.

This paper, titled "Zoom to learn, Learn to zoom," for example, focuses on building a model that mimics optical zoom directly on raw sensor data. The authors created a dataset of raw images, and their corresponding optically zoomed ground truth. They also proposed a loss function named "contextual bilateral loss" to handle slightly misaligned image pairs.

Speaking of raw images, Google Pixel's Super Res Zoom feature showed that it's possible to achieve super-resolution through a burst of raw images. Google's method makes use of slight hand movements to fill in the missing spots in an upscaled image. So what if the user is using a tripod, and the image is perfectly still. Then, they deliberately jiggle the camera between the shots. So, to be able to implement this, you need to have complete control of the hardware.

Unlike the other methods we covered so far, Google's Super Res Zoom is a multi-frame super-resolution algorithm. If you don't have such bursts of images and want to upscale your pictures, you can easily use the single-frame super-resolution methods that we overviewed today. ESRGAN, for example, operates on a single input image and is very easy to run on an arbitrary picture you may want to use.

There are also task-specific super-resolution models, which I think is worth mentioning. For instance, face-upscaling models use face priors to synthesize realistic details on faces. Basically, the models know what a face typically looks like and uses that information to hallucinate the details. As you can tell, those methods are absolutely not suitable for CSI purposes, since all the details in the upscaled version are completely made up.

Alright, that's all for today. I hope you liked it. I put the links to all referenced papers in the description below. Subscribe for more videos. And as always, thanks for watching, stay tuned, and see you next time.